Canadian scholars
Engaging ideas, transforming minds
Engaging ideas, transforming minds
2017 youth in conflict cvr
Canadian Scholars’ Press
322 pages
8.5 x 11 inches
September 2017
Print ISBN: 9781773380308
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Overview

Employing a historical perspective, this well-regarded author team examines the relationship between police and youth offenders according to the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA) and addresses the challenges officers face when dealing with young persons, the way police are perceived by young persons, and the strategies police use to positively interact with youth offenders. Procedures for arresting, questioning, detaining, processing, and sentencing young persons are clearly explained.

Ideal for college police foundations students in Canada, Youth in Conflict with the Law walks readers through the various legislations established to protect young persons. This book encourages students to consider the problem of youth crime within social contexts, and, ultimately, to recognize the factors that lead youth to enter into conflict with the law.

Features

  • contains excerpts from news publications and a complete reprint of the Youth Criminal Justice Act (2002)
  • draws on different legislations, including the Juvenile Delinquents Act, the Young Offenders Act, the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms, the Child and Family Services Act, and the Youth Criminal Justice Act
  • outlines the connection between youth and adult criminality


Related Titles


Table of Contents

PREFACE

CHAPTER 1: OFFENDING BY YOUNG PEOPLE IN HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE
Introduction
Young People and the Law
Youth Crime as a Social Problem
Responses to Youth Crime
Institutional Responses
Houses of Refuge
Dissatisfaction with Institutions
The Juvenile Court

CHAPTER 2: LEGISLATION DEALING WITH YOUNG CANADIANS IN CONFLICT WITH THE LAW: A BRIEF HISTORY
The Need for Context
The Early Years
The Juvenile Delinquents Act
The Young Offenders Act
Key Provisions of the Young Offenders Act
Criticisms of the Young Offenders Act

CHAPTER 3: YOUTH CRIME: HOW BIG A PROBLEM?
Measuring Crime
Official Statistics
Self-Report Statistics
Victimization Surveys
Other Procedures
Processing Counts of Crime
Profile of Official Offenders
Demographics
Offences

CHAPTER 4: CURRENT LEGISLATION RELATING TO YOUNG PEOPLE
The Young Person and the Law
The Criminal Code of Canada
The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
The Child and Family Services Act
The Youth Criminal Justice Act
Key Provisions of the Youth Criminal Justice Act

CHAPTER 5: PROTECTING YOUNG PEOPLE: CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES ACT
Introduction
Responsibility of Those Who Provide Services
Functions of Children’s Aid Societies
Circumstances to Be Considered
Apprehensions, Role and Responsibilities of the CAS
Warrants and Apprehension
Police Powers
Crown Wardship
Media
Prohibition: Identifying Child
Temporary Orders
Order for Assessment
CAS’s Plan for a Child
Placement of Wards
Duty to Report
Youth Justice
Detention Programs or Facilities
Rights of Children in Care
Further Review

CHAPTER 6: ARRESTING AND QUESTIONING YOUNG PERSONS
Arresting Young Persons
Who Is a “Young Person”?
Basic Rights of the Accused
Arrest
Questioning the Young Person
Explanations Appropriate to the Young Person’s Age and Understanding
Notification to Parents
Persons Under 12 Years of Age
Putting It Together

CHAPTER 7: EXTRAJUDICIAL MEASURES
Extrajudicial Measures
Police
Appropriateness of Extrajudicial Measures
Crown Prosecutors
Crown Warnings
Extrajudicial Sanctions
Admissions as Evidence
Right of Victim to Be Informed
Court
Looking Ahead

CHAPTER 8: DETAINING AND PROCESSING YOUNG PERSONS
Arrest and Detention
Appearance before a Judge
Conditions of Release
Temporary Restraint, Temporary Detention, Secondary Cautions, and Bail
Temporary Restraint
Temporary Detention
Secondary Caution to Charged Person
Bail
Records
Fingerprinting and Photographing
Police Records
Government Records
Other Records
Period of Access
Protection of Privacy
Accessibility of Records
Summary: Putting It Together

CHAPTER 9: THE YOUTH JUSTICE COURT
Jurisdiction: Youth Justice Court
The Main Players
Defence Counsel
The Crown Prosecutor
The Judge
The Police
The Trial
Witnesses
Sentences
The Pre-sentence Report
Pre-sentence Assessments
Sentencing
Extrajudicial Sanctions
Youth Sentences
Sentencing Options
Adult Sentences
A Case for Adult Sentences

CHAPTER 10: CUSTODIAL SENTENCES
Custodial Provisions
Levels of Custody
Terms of Custody
Review of Sentences
Re-integrative Leave Provisions
Conditional Supervision
Custodial Sentences
Alternatives
Conclusion
Evidence of Implementation

CHAPTER 11: THE CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM: ITS OBJECTIVES AND THE PLACE OF RESTORATIVE JUSTICE
The Objectives of the Criminal Justice System
Restraint
Retribution
Specific Deterrence
General Deterrence
Symbolism
Rehabilitation
Restitution
Youth Criminal Justice System
Restraint
Retribution
Individual Deterrence
General Deterrence
Symbolism
Rehabilitation
Restitution
Restorative Justice
After the Conference

CHAPTER 12: INTERACTION: YOUNG PEOPLE AND THE POLICE
Young People and the Police
Attitudes Toward the Police
Age
Social Class
Misunderstanding
Adversarial Contact
Enhancing the Image
Dealing with Young People
Special Circumstances
Child Endangerment
Children Who Are Out of Control
Dealing with Gangs
Bullying

APPENDIX: YOUTH CRIMINAL JUSTICE ACT

GLOSSARY

REFERENCES

COPYRIGHT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

INDEX

Paul Maxim

Paul Maxim is a Professor of Economics and Director of the Master in International Public Policy program in the Balsillie School of International Affairs at the University of Wilfrid Laurier.


Paul C. Whitehead

Paul C. Whitehead is Professor Emeritus of Sociology at Western University.


Instructor Resources


The instructor’s manual will be produced as a PDF and includes:

  • Instructor exercises
  • Test banks

See sample

Student Resources


General Student Resource - Download