We don’t actively support Internet Explorer
It appears that you are using Internet Explorer, which has been discontinued by Microsoft. Support has ended for versions older than 11, and as a result you may face security issues and other problems when using it.
We recommend upgrading to a newer browser such as Firefox, Google Chrome, or Edge for a much better experience across the web.
While this site may work with Explorer, we are not testing and verifying it, so you may run into some trouble or strange looking things.
John Shields is a Professor in the Department of Politics and Public Administration and a faculty member of the Graduate Program in Immigration and Settlement Studies at Ryerson University.