Engaging ideas, transforming minds
Engaging ideas, transforming minds
Canadian Scholars’ Press
Approx. 400 pages
6.75 x 9.75 inches
July 2019
Print ISBN: 9781773381060
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Overview

In this updated second edition, Debating Health Care Ethics explores contemporary moral challenges in health care, providing students with the essential tools to understand and critically evaluate the leading arguments in the field and to develop their own arguments on important moral problems in health care. Written in a clear and concise way, the textbook’s first three chapters explore the nature of arguments and ethical theories, while the remaining chapters introduce students to moral problems in health care through case studies and dramas that feature complex scenarios involving patients, family members, and health care providers. Each case study and drama is followed by a lively debate where the authors defend their unique approaches to the dilemma. This new edition now includes more gender inclusive dramas, an expanded discussion of feminist ethics, a case study on euthanasia that highlights changes to Canadian law, and an update on fetal consciousness that informs the debate on abortion. Emphasizing critical issues in health care from a Canadian perspective, this essential textbook will benefit students in philosophy, nursing, and health studies.


Related Titles


Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Arguments and Methodology

Introduction

Arguments

What Is an Argument?

Evaluating Arguments

Philosophical Methodology—Counterexamples and Thought Experiments

Common Fallacies

Circularity (a.k.a. Begging the Question)

False Dilemma

Equivocation

Appeal to Emotion

Straw Man

Ad Hominem

Conclusion

Review Questions

Notes

Chapter 2 Philosophical Ethics: An Introduction Introduction

Three Types of Ethical Inquiry

Skeptical Concerns: Ethical Relativism

Normative Ethical Theory

Classical Act Utilitarianism

Objections to Utilitarianism

Utilitarian Responses

Rule Utilitarianism

Non-Consequentialism and Deontology

Kant’s Ethics

The Idea of Moral Worth

The Categorical Imperative

The Universal Law Formulation of the Categorical Imperative

The Humanity Version of the Categorical Imperative

Objections to the Universal Law and Humanity Tests

Pluralistic Deontology

Difficulties with Ross’s Theory

Social Contract Theory

Hobbes’s Social Contract Theory

Objections to Hobbes’s Social Contract Theory

Rawls’s Social Contract Theory: Justice as Fairness

Difficulties with Rawls’s Social Contract Theory

Aristotle’s Virtue Theory

Objections to Virtue Theory

Feminist Ethics

The Ethics of Care

Difficulties with the Ethics of Care

Status-Oriented Feminist Approaches

Conclusion

Review Questions

Notes

Chapter 3 Our Philosophical Approaches Introduction

Doran’s Pluralistic Approach to Ethics

Leading Ethical Theories and Their Problems

Moral Pluralism

Patrick’s Virtue-Based Approach to Ethics

Metaethics

Normative Ethics

Some Objections and Responses

Warren’s Approach to Ethics: Practical Social Contract Theory

The Main Contractarian Ideas for Warren’s Purposes

The Committee Metaphor

The Video Game Metaphor

Warren’s Use of Social Contract Theory

Cultural Relativism

Ethics Regarding Non-humans

Social Contract Theory beyond Ethics

Warning

Conclusion

Review Questions

Notes

Chapter 4 Autonomy and the Right to Refuse Treatment

Introduction

Drama

Debate

Identifying Relevant Facts

Moral Issues Raised by the Case

Stating Our Positions

An Argument for the Right to Ignore Experts

Clarifying Premise (3)

Assuming Mr. Edwards Was Competent, Did His Health Care Team Err in Releasing Him from the Hospital When They Did?

Objections to Premise (5)

Was Mr. Edwards Competent?

The Gangrenous Foot Example

Incompetence to Refuse Medical Care: Skepticism without Reason

Competence and Psychiatric Evaluation

Did Mr. Edwards Give a Valid Refusal?

Objections to Premise (7)

Virtue May Overpower the Right to Refuse

Doubt Justifies Delay

Review Questions

Notes

Chapter 5 Euthanasia

Introduction

Case Description

Case Description: Tim Regan’s VAE

What Is Euthanasia?

Different Kinds of Euthanasia

Deciding Which Issues to Debate

The Morality of Voluntary Active Euthanasia

The Autonomy and Best Interest Argument for VAE

The Revised Autonomy and Best Interest Argument

The Sanctity of Life Objection to the Morality of VAE

Suicide and Hare’s Lorry Driver—More Counterexamples to the Sanctity of Life Principle

An Argument That the Moral Reasons against Killing Do Not Apply to VAE

An Argument That Euthanasia Is Wrong Because It Destroys What Belongs to God

A Counterexample to the Revised Autonomy and Best Interest Argument

The Morality of Non-Voluntary Active Euthanasia

The Best Interest Argument for NAE

Philippa Foot’s Objection to NAE

The Never-Best-Interest Objection to NAE

Summary

Review Questions

Notes

Chapter 6 Abortion

Introduction

Drama

Debate

Clarifying the Case and Identifying Relevant Facts

Moral Issues Raised by the Case

Stating Our Positions

Leading Arguments against the Morality of Abortion

Noonan’s Argument

Marquis’s Argument for the Wrongfulness of Abortion

The Argument that This Abortion Discriminates Against the Disabled

Patrick’s Virtue-Based Argument for Why Abortion Would Be Permissible in this Case

The Right to Life Weighed against Marissa and Don’s Virtues

Doran’s Argument That Marissa and Don’s Decision to Abort Was Morally Permissible

The Rationality Criterion for a Right to Life

The Life Criterion

The Sentience Criterion

The Addition of Rationality to Sentience

Objections to Doran’s Sentience-Based Criterion of a Right to Life

Summary

Review Questions

Notes

Chapter 7 C-Section by Choice

Introduction

Drama

Debate

Clarifying the Case and Identifying Relevant Facts

Moral Issues Raised by the Case

Stating Our Positions

Doran’s Argument for Why Wendy’s Decision Is Morally Permissible

Do Potential Harms Make Wendy’s Autonomous Choice Wrong?

Harms to the Baby

Harms to the Mother

Harms to Others besides the Baby and the Mother

Summary

Review Questions

Notes

Chapter 8 Two-Tier Health Care

Introduction

Drama

Debate

Clarifying the Case and Identifying Relevant Facts

Moral Issues Raised by the Case

Stating Our Positions

A Libertarian Argument

The Wilt Chamberlain Example

Is Redistributive Taxation Inherently Unjust?

The Complicity Objection to the Second Premise

The Compassion Objection to the Libertarian’s Second Premise

An Egalitarian Argument

The Self-Respect Argument

Two-Tier Arguments

Is Two-Tier MRI Permissible If It Does Not Harm the Public Health Care System?

Is Two-Tier MRI Permissible If It Benefits the Public Health Care System?

Warren’s Social Contract View on When Two-Tier MRI Is Justified

Patrick’s Virtue-Based View on When Two-Tier MRI Is Justified

Comments on Canada’s Current Public Health Care System

From the Political to the Individual

Closing Arguments

Summary

Review Questions

Notes

Chapter 9 Microallocation of Scarce Resources

Introduction

Drama

Debate

Clarifying the Case and Identifying Relevant Facts

Moral Issues Raised by the Case

Stating Our Positions

Microallocation Rules: Clinical Considerations

Warren’s Argument for Fair Microallocation Rules: Worst First, First Come, and Hopeless Second

Doran’s Objection to the Sympathy Metarule

Patrick’s Objection to the Sympathy Metarule

Objection to the Sufficiency of Hopeless Second

Minimize YPLL (Minimize Years of Potential Life Lost)

Substantial Benefit

Fair Turn

Microallocation Rules: Non-Clinical Considerations

Moral Responsibility

Innocents First

Third-Party Interests

Public Interest

Medical Interests

Collecting Our Thoughts

Summary

Review Questions

Notes

Chapter 10 Alternative Medications and Professional Relationships

Introduction

Drama

Debate

Clarifying the Case and Identifying Relevant Facts

Moral Issues Raised by the Case

Stating Our Positions

The Best Interest Principle

Patrick’s Frog Toxin Counterexample to the Best Interest Principle

The Ample Discretion Principle

Doran’s Indeterminacy Objection to Warren’s Principle

The Ample Discretion Principle Revised: Valid Consent of Competent Patients Only

Ample Discretion, Patient Competence, and Valid Consent

Ample Discretion and Patient Autonomy

The Ample Discretion Principle Revised (Again): Harm Avoidance

Against the Revised Ample Discretion Principle: The Division of Labour Objection

The Psychic Surgery Counterexample

More Counterexamples to the Ample Discretion Principle: Prayer and Other Unconventional Treatments

Final Thoughts

Summary

Review Questions

Notes

Glossary

Index

Patrick Findler

Patrick Findler is a Professor in the Department of Philosophy at Kwantlen Polytechnic University, who teaches ethics, metaphysics, and the philosophy of sport.


Doran Smolkin

Doran Smolkin is a Professor in the Department of Philosophy at Kwantlen Polytechnic University, who specializes in teaching ethics.


Warren Bourgeois

Warren Bourgeois is a Professor Emeritus from the Department of Philosophy at Kwantlen Polytechnic University, who has also taught at the University of Salzburg, Austria; the University of California, San Diego; and the University of British Columbia


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