Engaging ideas, transforming minds
Engaging ideas, transforming minds

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Health Promotion and Aging During a Pandemic

(Chapter 32 by Andrew V. Wister and Personal Reflection 7 by Peggy Edwards)

Relevant Readings

Alonzi, S., La Torre, A., & Silverstein, M. W. (2020). The psychological impact of preexisting mental and physical health conditions during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(S1), S236–S238. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/tra0000840.

This study of 620 young adults—aged from 18-35 years—investigated the mental and physical health status of subjects in the weeks following the pandemic declaration. It was found that depression and anxiety were highest among non-binary and female participants. The findings suggest that specific groups can be targeted for early intervention in order to attempt to prevent mental health degradation.

Ayalon, L., Chasteen, A., Diehl, M., et al. (2020), Aging in Times of the COVID-19 Pandemic: Avoiding Ageism and Fostering Intergenerational Solidarity, The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 76(2), 49–52. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbaa051.

This editorial suggests that there are three primary ways that evidence from behavioural sciences that can make a difference: examining the outbreak of ageism associated with the pandemic; highlighting the value of strengthening solidarity between the generations; and enriching discussions about the significant ethical questions that have been raised by the pandemic. It concludes by suggesting that scientists have a responsibility to participate in the public discourse by correcting misperceptions, over-generalizations, and ethically questionable suggestions.

Barber, S. J. & Kim, H. (2020). COVID-19 Worries and Behavior Changes in Older and Younger Men and Women, The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 76(2), 17–23. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbaa068

The authors tested whether older adults, and particularly older men, were less worried about COVID-19 than their younger adults. Younger adults perceived the risks of COVID-19 to be lower than did older adults, and men perceived the risks to be lower than did women. Older men also endorsed the fewest number of behaviour changes. Results are worrisome because the COVID19 case fatality rate is highest among older men, suggesting a critical need for behavioural change interventions.

Bergman, Y. S., Cohen-Fridel, S., Shrira, A., et al. (2020). COVID-19 health worries and anxiety symptoms among older adults: the moderating role of ageism. International Psychogeriatrics, 32(11), 1371–1375. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1041610220001258.

This study consisted of 243 older adults between the ages of 60 and 92 years. It found that the association between COVID-19 health worries and anxiety symptoms were higher among older adults who reported high ageism levels.

Brooke, J. & Jackson, D. (2020). Older people and COVID‐19: Isolation, risk and ageism, Journal of Clinical Nursing, 29(13–14). https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.15274.

This article suggested that though an “organised and comprehensive approach, charities, organisations, and healthcare providers could work together to support older people through this period of social isolation and to minimise and mitigate the negative impact of negative ageism, social isolation, and loneliness.”

De Bruin, W. B. (2020). Age Differences in COVID-19 Risk Perceptions and Mental Health: Evidence from a National U.S. Survey Conducted in March 2020, The Journals of Gerontology: Series B, 76(2), 24–29. https://doi.org/10.1093/geronb/gbaa074

Carstensen's Socio-emotional Selectivity Theory posits that older adults aim at maximizing their well-being, reporting fewer negative emotions. Using a sample of N=6,666 US adults, the authors modelized risk perceptions and mental health. They confirmed that older adults perceived smaller risks of getting COVID-19, but higher risk of fatality, if infected, and felt less depression and anxiety symptoms. Nonetheless, authors recommend interventions for all, to maintain realistic perceptions of the risks and to manage depression and anxiety during the COVID-19 event.

Ehni, H.-J., & Wahl, H.-W. (2020). Six propositions against ageism in the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Aging & Social Policy 32(4–5), 515–525. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959420.2020.1770032.

This article states that ageist attitudes are based on “negative stereotypes on the health and functioning of older adults.” During the pandemic, the lives of older adults have been devalued in situations such as triage, as well as other measures meant to reduce the spread of COVID-19. The authors illustrate six propositions to reduce ageism and respect the needs and dignity of older adults.

Fraser, S., Lagacé, M., Bongué, B., et al. (2020). Ageism and COVID-19: What does our society’s response say about us? Age and Aging, 49(5), 692–695. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afaa097.

Over 20 international researchers in the field of aging have contributed to this document. This commentary discusses how older people are misrepresented and undervalued in the current public discourse surrounding the pandemic.

Gardner, W., States, D., and Bagley, N. (2020). The Coronavirus and risks to the elderly in long-term care. Journal of Aging & Social Policy, 32(4–5), 310–315. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959420.2020.1750543.

This article stresses that the aged in long-term care facilities are at elevated risk of contracting COVID-19. Since family and friends of residents are not able to visit long-term care facilities, residents are increasingly isolated and vulnerable to abuse and neglect. The authors propose different methods to protect the elderly in long-term care and enhance social connectedness with family and friends.

The Gerontological Society of America (2020). Understanding ageism and COVID-19. https://www.geron.org/images/gsa/reframing/AgeismInfographic_final.pdf

Ageism would suggest that age is the primary risk factor for COVID-19 and that mostly older adults experience loneliness. This infographic addresses other factors (health status, sex, race, location, economic status, location, and occupation) influencing the risks to get the disease or to feel lonely as a result of distancing measures.

Gillis, M. (2021). ILC Canada demands a United Nations Convention on the Rights of Older Persons in response to the human rights violation in the 2020 pandemic. http://ilccanada.org

The COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the impact of ageism on the human rights of older people here at home and all around the world. Margaret Gillis, president of the International Longevity Centre Canada (ILC, Canada) has written a letter directed to the Ministers of Foreign Affairs and of Seniors, urging Canada to show immediate and decisive leadership in supporting a Convention on the Rights of Older Persons. Many other organizations and individuals have sent the letter.

Grenier, E. (2020). How focusing on the age of pandemic victims could blind us to the bigger picture. CBC News. https://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/covid19-elderly-deaths-1.5542967

This author suggests that “focusing on [age] can make it easy to overlook the fact that while more than 2,000 Canadians have lost their lives to COVID-19, there are many more who are feeling that loss now—and many more who will.”

Halon, E. (2020) Digital literacy, resilience to be key in the post-coronavirus world, Jerusalem Post. https://www.jpost.com/israel-news/digital-literacy-resilience-to-be-key-in-the-post-coronavirus-world-626455

This article quotes Sigal Shelach, director-general of Joint Distribution Committee in Israel in relation to “Digital Literacy.” The following was among the quotations: every citizen must learn to "cope with the world that is now digital." She also expressed the opinion that the retraining of older workers with decades of experience will be critical to enable the market to bounce back and continue to grow and emphasized the need to close digital gaps.

Henning-Smith, C. (2020). The unique impact of COVID-19 on older adults in rural areas. Journal of Aging and Social Policy, 32(4–5), 396–402. https://doi.org/10.1080/08959420.2020.1770036.

This article focuses on older adults in rural areas in the United States, since they face unique risks and challenges in relation to COVID-19. Those living in rural areas are more likely to be older, have greater multimorbidity, have lesser economic resources, and have reduced access to healthcare.

Longhurst, A. and Strauss, K., (2020). Time to End Profit-making in Seniors Care, Policy note. https://www.policynote.ca/seniors-care-profit/

This article covers system stress, risks associated with for profit ownership and financialized corporate chains, rebuilding seniors care, and steps for provincial governments.

Luchetti, M., Lee, J. H., Aschwanden, D. et al. (2020). The trajectory of loneliness in response to COVID-19. American Psychologist, 75(7), 897–908. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000690.

This study observed the change in loneliness in response to the social restriction measures (such as social distancing and stay-at-home orders) that were initiated in order to reduce the spread of COVID-19. The study did not find a large increase in loneliness in response to COVID-19, although vulnerable individuals were found to have deficits.

McCullough,M. (2020). Ethical decision making in a pandemic: where are the voices of vulnerable people,BMJ, 369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m2406

Existing ethical frameworks define guidelines on best practices to apply fairly to every individual. In this commentary, Dr. McCullough, ethicist, discusses the failing of the UK government to respect their own ethical framework, especially for their most vulnerable populations, by being unable to protect care homes' residents and their carers. According to her, a decade of underfunding of social care made it impossible for the government to implement its ethical framework.

Monahan, C., MacDonald, J., Lytle, A., et al. (2020). COVID-19 and ageism: How positive and negative responses impact older adults and society. American Psychologist, 75(7), 887–896. https://dx.doi.org/10.1037/amp0000699.

This article highlights the positive and negative public responses of society towards older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic in America. The positive and negative effects of both types of responses are illustrated and discussed at length. Policy issues are also elucidated.

Montero-Odasso, M., Goens, S. D., Kamkar, N., et al. (2020), Canadian Geriatrics Society COVID-19 Recommendations for Older Adults. What Do Older Adults Need to Know? Canadian Geriatrics Journal, 23(1), 149–151. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7136027/

This article is intended for physicians assisting older patients with a resource to be shared with them. It covers: Who is high risk for severe illness from COVID-19? What should older adults do? and lists ten recommendations for older adults.

Mueller, A. L., McNamara, M. S., & Sinclair, D. A. (2020). Why does COVID-19 disproportionately affect older people? Aging, 12(10), 9959–9981. https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103344

This article illustrates why adults aged 65 or older have a 23 times greater risk of death from COVID-19 than those under the age of 65. Differences in immune response and other difficulties of an aged physiology are illustrated. The authors suggest that older adults may not respond to vaccines as well as people of other ages. This is because immune responses to vaccinations can be weak or defective in the aged.

Rose, T. C., Mason, K. & Pennington, A. et al. (2020) Inequalities in COVID19 mortality related to ethnicity and socioeconomic deprivation. medRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.04.25.20079491

This paper summarizes a study that assessed the association between ethnic composition, income deprivation and COVID-19 mortality rates in England. The study provides evidence that both income deprivation and ethnicity are associated with greater COVID-19 mortality. The authors suggest that to reduce these inequalities, governments need to target effective control measures at these disadvantaged communities, ensuring investment of resources reflects their greater need and vulnerability to the pandemic.

Sands, L. P., Albert, S. M. & Suiter, J. J. (2020). Understanding and Addressing Older Adults’ Needs During COVID-19, Innovation in Aging, 4(3). https://doi.org/10.1093/geroni/igaa019

Concerns are raised about older adults' experience of the COVID-19 pandemic context, such as the negative consequences of social distancing on health and personal care. Authors recommend further research by experts in gerontology, geriatrics, and geroscience, aiming for the development of interventions.

Shahid, Z., Kalayanamitra, R., McClafferty, B., et al. (2020). COVID-19 and older adults: what we know. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 68(5), 926–929. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.16472

This detailed review provides an overview of COVID-19 in relation to older adults. Subjects include pathophysiology, clinical presentation, mortality in older adults, and treatment.

Tyrrell, C. J. and Williams, K. N. (2020). The paradox of social distancing: implications for older adults in the context of COVID-19. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy, 12(51), S214-S216. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/tra0000845

This article highlights how social distancing measures can increase levels of loneliness and social isolation for individuals. Given that loneliness and social isolation adversely affect mental and physical health, it is contended that this is an important issue, particularly for older adults.

UBC Faculty of Medicine. (2020). Pathways: Connecting with Passion and Care, Issue 4, Special Edition: COVID-19 & Seniors’ Health. https://view.joomag.com/pathways-issue-4-covid-19-edition/0283338001587141762?short

This issue of Pathways offers advice, insight and ideas from faculty members on the front lines. It also looks at how the Faculty of Medicine is rapidly redeploying its energies to advance cutting-edge research, from creating vaccine candidates to testing how existing medications could be repurposed to treat COVID-19.

United Nations. (2020). Policy Brief: The Impact of COVID-19 on Food Security and Nutrition. http://www.fao.org/policy-support/tools-and-publications/resources-details/en/c/1287907/

This United Nations brief examines these dimensions of the COVID-19 challenge and suggests three mutually reinforcing sets of priority actions to address the immediate, near- and medium-term needs to protect people during and beyond the crisis, and, ultimately, to reshape and build resilient food systems.

United Nations. (2020). Secretary-General’s Policy Brief: The Impact of COVID-19 on older persons. https://www.un.org/development/desa/ageing/news/2020/05/covid-19-older-persons/

This policy brief elaborates on the impacts of the pandemic on older persons and the contributions and resilience that older people have shown. It identifies both immediate and longer-term policy and programmatic responses needed across four key priorities for action:

United Way. (2020). Seniors Embrace (all) Technologies during COVID-19. https://www.uwlm.ca/news/seniors-embrace-all-technologies-during-covid-19/

This article published during the COVID-19 pandemic discusses how older adults dramatically changed how they go about their daily lives. It also how it changed how the United Way, partner agencies, and those delivering services to older adults work.

Wister, A. (Ed.) (2020). COVID-19 Special Issue: Risk, Response and Resilience in an Aging COVID-19 World. Vancouver: GRC News. https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/view/63465050/grc-news-summer-2020

This newsletter includes 22 articles covering a range of COVID-19 and aging topics written by academics, post-doctoral fellows, graduate students, and seniors affiliated with the Simon Fraser University Gerontology Research Centre. Some of the topics include, long-term and home care; use of technology to support older adults during a pandemic; LGBTQ2+ COVID-19 challenges and resilience; elder abuse; meaning in life and ageism; family struggles; and other key areas. A range of major issues and recommendations are discussed.

Xu, L., Mao, Y., & Chen, G. (2020). Risk factors for 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) patients progressing to critical illness: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Aging, 12(12), 12410–12421. https://doi.org/10.18632/aging.103383

This review was conducted in both Chinese and English and included twenty eligible articles. The authors found that elderly male patients with a high body mass index, high breathing rate, and underlying diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were more likely to develop severe COVID-19 infections.

Relevant Websites and Organizations

Government of Canada: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak updates


This website provides the latest updates on COVID-19 and links to digital factsheets, printable posters, shareable videos on COVID-19 (multilingual products available), social media and promotional resources from Health Canada and Public Health Agency of Canada, and COVID-19 apps, tools, and data.

National Collaborating Centre for Healthy Public Policy: Public Health Ethics and COVID-19


This is a list of resources on ethics related to health and COVID-19 assembled by the National Collaborating Centre on Determinants of Health on the following topics: Ethics frameworks and guidance for pandemics and public health emergencies; Equity; Indigenous health; Priority-setting/allocation of resources; Research and surveillance; Communication; Global health, global justice; Civil liberties; Physical (or social) distancing: balancing benefits and harms.

Relevant Videos

Optima Living. (2020). COVID-19 Questions with Dr. Adrian Wagg. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLZS8Iw-I25zJ6rf7xECdq4djUNgiQ6Nf8

During the COVID-19 pandemic, University of Alberta geriatric medicine researcher Adrian Wagg provided tips on how seniors can stay socially connected, what precautions they should take, and how to keep receiving regular medical care during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Probably Tomfoolery. (2020, April 29). The Great Realisation | Tomfoolery | A bed time story of how it started, and why hindsight’s 2020. YouTube. (4 minutes). https://www.parents.com/news/viral-coronavirus-poem-inspires-hope/

A story of the positive impact of the 2020 pandemic as read by a father to his young son in the future.

Real Time with Bill Maher. (2020, April 24). Dr. David Katz | Real Time with Ball Maher (HBO). YouTube. (15 minutes). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lze-rMYLf2E

According to Dr. Katz, the COVID-19 pandemic has turned chronic health liabilities like heart disease and type 2 diabetes into acute threats. He also suggested that there should be a national health-promotion campaign to encourage people to improve their diets and lifestyle before they become infected. In addition, he concluded that COVID-19 affects different populations differently, based on their age and prior health.

Moving Forward on Healthy Aging: Challenges and Opportunities

(Chapter 33 by Frances Grunberg, Peggy Edwards, Irving Rootman, and Mélanie Levasseur)

Relevant Readings

Armstrong, P., Cohen, M. G., Ritchie, L., et al. (2021). The Care Economy Statement. https://thecareeconomy.ca/

Canada’s crisis in care has been highlighted by the pandemic. The crisis has had terrible consequences for so many, including those in long-term care. Many of the deficiencies have weighed heaviest on women, racialized and Indigenous populations, and those with disabilities. In response, a group of reputable activists and experts are spearheading a movement to put care at the centre of the political agenda. The Care Economy Statement describes the principles for achieving a just recovery that addresses the crisis in care for both those who need and those who provide care. It is a call to recognize that good care is crucial to our health and well-being as individuals and as a society; it is the critical social infrastructure that delivers overall economic stability and growth; and it is a shared responsibility, not just a personal one. This requires a shift from thinking of care as an expenditure to understanding it as an economic driver through investment in people and good jobs. With this shift we create a healthy society that can maximize its potential and excel in new ways.

CADTH. (2020). Healthy Aging Interventions, Programs, and Initiatives: An Environmental Scan. https://cadth.ca/healthy-aging-interventions-programs-and-initiatives-environmental-scan

The key objectives of this Environmental Scan were to (a) identify interventions from the literature that have demonstrated benefit in promoting and maintaining physical, mental, or social well-being in healthy older people who are living in the community and (b) identify and describe specific programs, interventions, and initiatives that are being used in Canada and internationally to promote health aging and prevent frailty.

Edington, D. L., Schultz, A. B., Pitts, J. S., et al. (2016). The Future of Health Promotion in the 21st Century: A Focus on the Working Population, American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 10(4), 242–252. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1559827615605789

The purpose of this article was to synthesize developments from various disciplines including the medical, wellness, psychology, and sociology fields to shed light on where health promotion is headed in the next 25 years. New research identifies the important roles of many diverse factors such as relationships, lifestyle behaviours, emotional outlook, positive environment, mind–body connection, use of technology, and work styles, which can help each person achieve the fullness of life, vitality, and flourishing that characterizes a high level of well-being.

Hancock, T. (2011) Health promotion in Canada: 25 years of unfulfilled promise, Health Promotion International, 26(suppl_2), ii263–ii267. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dar061

In this essay written in 2011, Trevor Hancock casts a personal and critical eye over what he sees to be the general failure of our federal and provincial governments to fully adopt and implement health promotion, and thus to realize the population health benefits that could and should have been achieved.

International Union for Health Promotion and Educaion (IUHPE). (2008). Shaping the Future of Health Promotion: Priorities for Action. Health Promotion International, 23(1), 98–102. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/dam033

Launched in June in Vancouver at the IUHPE World Conference on Health Promotion and Health Education was the product of an international Project Advisory Group's reflections derived from a collection of commissioned field reports on renewing commitment to the path set out by the Ottawa Charter. It identifies new challenges and approaches and the following topics: putting healthy public policy into practice; strengthening structures and processes in all sectors; moving towards knowledge-based practice; building a competent health promotion workforce; empowering communities; and concludes with a global commitment to implement health promotion fully, in all parts of the world, in ways that best fit local political, cultural, social, and economic conditions to address 21st century challenges to health.

Laverack, G. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic: Ten things we must do better in health promotion, Outbreak News Today. http://outbreaknewstoday.com/covid-19-pandemic-ten-things-we-must-do-better-in-health-promotion-17873/

This article suggested that health promotion could do the following things better in addressing COVID-19: protect frontline workers; shield vulnerable people in society; use social science to understand the complexity of societies; respect the culture and needs of communities; work with communities in slum settings; strengthen social networks to support communities; support the mobilization of volunteers to help other people; use common sense and not rely on weak “evidence”; support non-COVID-19 health promotion issues; and involve communities in the COVID-19 outbreak response.

Linkages Reading List: Diversity & Inequality Considerations for Older Adults. (2019). Seniors Health Knowledge Network. https://sagelink.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/01/Diversity-Inquality-Considerations-for-Older-Adults.pdf

This is a list of publications on diversity and inequality considerations for older adults. Topics include minorities, equity and social determinants of health, culture, and palliative care.

McGibbon, E. (2021). Oppression: A Social Determinant of Health, 2nd Edition. Nova Scotia: Fernwood.

In this current environment, it is urgent to understand how oppression and health are closely connected. This book offers a thorough and accessible overview of the root or structural causes of ill health, such as capitalism, globalization, colonialism, medicalization, and neoliberalism. The contributors to this volume insist that the key to tackling these structural forces is understanding and changing oppressive practices that cause ill health, thus reframing growing health inequities within the scope of moral responsibility and social change. This thoroughly updated second edition contains contributions from internationally recognized experts in the field of critical social science analyses in health systems and health sciences studies.

Sparks, M. (2013), The Importance of context in the evolution of Health Promotion, Global Health Promotion, 20(2), 74–78. https://doi.org/10.1177/1757975913486683

The world has changed dramatically since the Ottawa Charter was developed in 1986. Contemporary health promotion responses continue to evolve and become more sophisticated in response to the multiple challenges created by an ever-changing world. This commentary discusses some of the challenges facing health promotion professionals today and some of the responses that are being developed to address them. The importance of contextual considerations for both the worker and the work of health promotion are emphasized. The author then suggests ways that organizations and individuals can meet modern-day health promotion challenges through specific courses of action.

Van den Broucke, S., (2020). Why health promotion matters to the COVID-19 pandemic, and vice versa, Health Promotion International, 35(2), 181–186. https://doi.org/10.1093/heapro/daaa042

This editorial articulates how lessons learned from COVID-19 can improve health promotion and how health promotion can improve the ways in which pandemics are more effectively addressed. These include: developing an interest in infectious diseases; embracing the concept of “One Health”; preparing to respond swiftly to future pandemics; and accepting uncertainty and living with it. The editorial also endorses the utility of the "action areas" used in the book as a viable framework for analysing and improving health promotion initiatives for older adults and other population groups.

Woodall, J. & Freeman, C. (2020). Where have we been and where are we going? The state of contemporary health promotion. Health Education Journal, 79(2), 621–632. https://doi.org/10.1177/0017896919899970

This paper seeks to critically discuss the current state of health promotion, arguing that ambiguity remains in its conceptual foundation, practice, and education, which is contributing to its decline in several parts of the world. Drawing on relevant literature, the paper re-examines the status of health promotion as a specialist discipline in its own right, and suggests that the reaffirmation of this status can move health promotion from the margins to the mainstream of public health policy and practice. The paper briefly rehearses some common conceptualisations of health promotion before suggesting four tensions which, if resolved, could offer greater conceptual clarity and galvanise the contribution of the discipline in addressing individual and community health across the globe.

World Health Organization. (2020). Decade of Healthy Aging Plan of Action. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/decade-of-healthy-ageing-plan-of-action

This document describes the UN Plan for a Decade of Healthy Ageing 2020–2030, which will consist of 10 years of concerted, catalytic, sustained collaboration. Older people themselves will be at the centre of this plan, which will bring together governments, civil society, international agencies, professionals, academia, the media, and the private sector to improve the lives of older people, their families, and their communities. It is the second action plan of the WHO global strategy on ageing and health, building on the United Nations Madrid International Plan of Action on Ageing and aligned with the timing of the United Nations Agenda 2030 on Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals.

Relevant Website

UN Decade of Healthy Ageing


The United Nations Decade of Healthy Ageing (2021–2030) is a global collaboration, aligned with the last ten years of the Sustainable Development Goals, that brings together governments, civil society, international agencies, professionals, academia, the media, and the private sector to improve the lives of older people, their families, and the communities in which they live. This website contains comprehensive information on the development of the decade, connections, how to get involved, and the Decade of Healthy Ageing platform.

Relevant Videos

CanAge. (2020, October 5). National Seniors Day Expert Roundtable. How to Make Canada More Age-Inclusive. YouTube. (1 hour 30 minutes). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OiGlNZF8l1I

This webinar asks an expert panel how we can make Canada more age inclusive. The panel includes The Honourable Deb Schulte, Minister of Seniors, Laura Tamblyn Watts, CEO CanAge, Gregor Sneddon, Executive Director of HelpAge Canada, Greg Shaw, Director International and Corporate Relations for the International Federation on Ageing (IFA), Margaret Gillis, President of the International Longevity Centre Canada (ILC), Kahir Lalji, Executive Director, United Way Southern Interior BC & Provincial Director of Population Health, United Way of the Lower Mainland and Dr. Alex Mihailidis, Scientific Director, AGE-WELL. Guest presenter, Vickery Bowles, City Librarian, Toronto Public Library discusses the role of libraries in age-inclusiveness.

Crenshaw, K. (2016). The Urgency of Intersectionality. TedTalk. (18 minutes). https://www.ted.com/talks/kimberle_crenshaw_the_urgency_of_intersectionality

Now more than ever, it's important to look boldly at the reality of race and gender bias—and understand how the two can combine to create even more harm. Kimberlé Crenshaw uses the term "intersectionality" to describe this phenomenon; as she says, if you're standing in the path of multiple forms of exclusion, you're likely to get hit by both. In this moving talk, she calls on us to bear witness to this reality and speak up for victims of prejudice.

UN Decade of Healthy Aging. (2020). Leaders’ Voices: Decade of Healthy Ageing. YouTube. (7 minutes). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yy2heDbFORQ

On the 30th anniversary celebrating the International Day of Older Persons, the Secretary General of the United Nations, the Director General of the WHO, the Secretarial General of the International Federation on Aging, and other international leaders highlight the significance of the Decade of Healthy Ageing and the importance of working together to improve the lives of older people, their families, and their communities.

World Health Organization. (2020). Decade of Healthy Ageing: Introduction to the WHO Baseline Report. YouTube. (2 minutes). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ShmemfpkVLQ.

In the same week that the United Nations General Assembly declared 2021–2030 the Decade of Healthy Ageing, WHO released the Baseline Report for the Decade of Healthy Ageing, which provides a snapshot of where we are in 2020 and where we aim to be by 2030. The report brings together data available for measuring healthy ageing, presents the experience of countries that have been successful in starting healthy ageing initiatives, and discusses what is needed to promote collaboration and better measure progress towards healthy ageing.